Loss of soil and biodiversity depends on soil: One of the reasons for deforestation
Bhagwan N. Rekadwad
School of Life Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded (India)
While searching the land, there is a presence of either rock formation or soil exposed seen everywhere. New rocks were formed due to uplifting and exposure of earth’s internal portion to outside environment. Physical and chemical factors cause changes in rocks are called weathering. Logically to form a foot soil nature could require as little as 100 years or as many as 1, 00,000 years or more than this. During the formation of soil large rocks fragmented and sized into small size. They are usually so small or cannot be seen with naked eyes e.g. silt, clay etc. Furthermore, many organisms depend on soil for their lives. Plants are growing on the soil and produce organic matter in the soil.
Weathering and plant growth usually occur together during soil formation. During the natural process of soil formation, the roots of plant excrete carbon dioxide (CO2). This excreted CO2 will be dissolved in the soil water; results in the formation of carbonic acid. The formed carbonic acid cause and speed up chemical weathering. On another hand, chemical weathering made soluble the essential elements for growth and mad it available to plants. Hence, chemical weathering contributes to the growth of the plants and other vegetation. Thus, weathering and plant growth work in “team” during natural formation of soil.
But, nowadays this enriched, fertile soil is washing out daily mostly due to human activities. Such as pumping of excessive water to the field without any control, weathering of soil due to excessive grazing in the forest and on hills, natural and artificial gully formation etc.
|Figure 1. Pumping of water into field||Figure 2 (a). Weathering of soil on hills|
|Figure 2 (b). Artificial weathering of soil
damaging living plants
|Figure 3 (a). Loss of Natural soil hip|
|Figure 3 (b). Loss of Natural soil hip due to manmade activity
|Figure 4. Cutting of plants holding soil
|Figure 5 (a). Cutting of plants for fuel purpose||Figure 5 (b). Useless damage to plants biodiversity|
The above said things can be avoided by adopting various types of methods such as
- Biological methods: Biological methods include agronomic practices e.g. Contour farming, mulching, crop rotation, strip cropping; Dry farming and Agrostological methods e.g. Lay farming, Retiring of land to grass.
- Mechanical methods: Mechanical methods include Basin listing and Contour terracing.
- Other methods such as Gully control, Afforestation,
- Rekadwad BN, (2014) Biodiversity of Nanded (M.S.) tropical dry deciduous forest special reference to terrestrial Unkeshwar hot springs. MICROBIOZ-INDIA, 5: 18-21
- Gadgil m, (1997) Diversity-The cornerstone of Life, Bittu Sahgal (eds). Vigyan Prasar, Qutub Institutional area, New Delhi & Sanctuary Magazine, Nariman Point, Mumbai; National Council For Science And Technology and Communication and Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 81-7480-026-3.