Ishwar Singh (Lecturer in English)
GSSS, Azmabad, Mokuta
Mulk Raj Anand was a Famous Indian Writer in English literature. He was the pioneer of Indian English literature. He was born on 12 December 1905 in Peshawar belongs to Hindu Family of Kshatriyas. In the present the Peshawar place in Pakistan. He was son of Lal chand, a copper smith and soldier, and his mother name was IshwarKaur. Anand studied at Amritsar, graduating with honours in 1924. He got higher studies in Cambridge, and the University of London gave him his Ph.D. in Philosophy Subject. In the Indian society he was famous in Novels writer, Short and children’s literature. He contributed his knowledge for Indian culture and literature. In the form of books it is around 100 volumes of highly creative, as well as profoundly scholastic, works, all in English. His writings have influenced Indian writing in various languages.
His Famous writings works are there ‘The Untouchables'(1935), ‘Coolie’, Narain’s ‘the Bachelor of Arts’ (1937), ‘The Dark Room’ ((1938), ‘The English Teacher’ (1945), ‘The Guide’ (1958), ‘The Man eater of Malgudi'(1961), Raja Rao’s ‘Kantapura’ ((1938), ‘The Serpent and the Rope’ ((1960), ‘The Cat and Shakespeare’ (1965). He died in 2004.
Subject :- Mulk Raj Anand, a socially committed novelist, has produced a good deal of literature. He has written more than a dozen novels and about seventy short stories and a host of essays and articles on a number of subjects. His novels fall into two categories namely social and autobiographical novels. He focused his attention on the sufferings, misery and wretchedness of the poor as a result of the exploitation of the downtrodden class of the Indian society. Religious hypocrisy, feudal system, East-West encounter, the place of woman in the society, superstitions, poverty, hunger and exploitation are his common themes. In this research paper we are discussing about “The Contribution of Mulk Raaj Anand in English Literature (Special Reference with his Famous Novels).
1.Untouchable (1935) :- This Novel is very famous in English Literature. It was the first book of Mulk Raaj Anand. This novel published in 1935 and based on Caste System. It depicts a day in the life of Bakha, a young “sweeper”, who is “untouchable” due to his work cleaning latrines. Mulk Raj Anand belongs to Gandhian era and his novels reveal prominently the deep influence of Gandhi. He keeps an eye on Gandhi’s philosophy and vision of harmonious integrity and emphasized more and more on social problems of the oppressed, the poor, the downtrodden dalits and the low caste of the Hindu society. His aim was to eliminate poverty, superstitions, caste system and untouchability which were predominant evils in the Indian society.
2.Coolie (1936) :- Coolie is also famous novel fo Mulk Raaj Anand published in 1936.This novel reinforced Anand’s position as one of India’s leading English authors. In this book Anand writes about critical study of British rule in India and India’s caste system. The plot revolves around a 14-year-old boy, Munoo, and his plight due to poverty and exploitation aided by the social and political structures in place. In this book Munoo, who represents the lowest part of India’s socioeconomic spectrum, a position identified by various names, including Dalit. Anand has indicted the entire class system that dominates Indian culture. In 2004, a commemorative edition including this book was launched by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
3.Two Leaves and a Bud (1937) :- Two Leaves and a Bud is a novel by Mulk Raaj Anand published in 1937. Like his other novels, this one also deals with the topic of oppression of the poor, and is about a peasant who tries to protect his daughter from a British soldier. The story is based in the tea plantations of Assam. The book was subsequently adapted to a Hindi film, Rahi, by Dev Anand. The book depicts in detail the concept of haves and have-nots and the exploitation of one at the hand of the other, in pre-independence India. In this novel the story of a coolie, named Ganju. His family who wore forced to leave their house. But an agent of tea planters appeared in front of them as a savior and promised them money, land and security in the distant Mecpherson Tea estate in Assam.
4.The Village (1939):- The Village is a novel by Mulk Raj Anand, published in 1939. In this book M.R. Anand define about India’s political structure, specifically the British rule and the independence movement. The novel revolves around Lal Singh a peasant in the Punjab, his antics going against social norms while in the village, his subsequent enrollment in the army and his troubles in the army, culminating in his return to the village.
5.Across the Black Waters (1939) :- Across the Black Waters is an English novel by the Indian writer Mulk Raj Anand first published in 1939. It describes the experience of Lalu, a sepoy in the Indian Army fighting on behalf of Britain against the Germans in France during World War I. He is portrayed by the author as an innocent peasant whose poor family was evicted from their land and who only vaguely understands what the war is about. The book has been described as Anand’s best work.
6.The Big Heart (1945):- This Novel also very famous novel of Mulk Raaj Anand. This is based on town. The story of the novel, takes place in Amritsar. The man with a big heart, Ananta, who has had the experience of participating in the Gandhian struggle for freedom in Bombay, arrives in Amritsar. By this time, the situation in Amritsar is already explosive and chaotic. It becomes more intensive and violating with Ananta’s arrival in the town. The story of this novel is very interesting. The story ends with the machine emerging the winner over human.
Thus these are famous novels of Mulk Raaj Anand. He writes other novels also for Indian Society. Like that
So Mulk Raaj Anand novels are given a good theme for readers.
Conclusion:- At last we can say that Mulk Raaj Anand novels are based on society structures and very beneficial for English literature. In the contemporary world these novels are given good knowledge. An incredibly prolific writer, Mulk Raj Anand’s creative career spanning a period of more than seventy-five years has been inextricably intertwined with the search for a just, equitable, and forward-looking India. He has written extensively in areas as variegated and diverse as art and sculpture, politics, Indian literature and history of ideas. Mulk Raj Anand received the International Peace Prize from World Peace Council. Sahitya Akademi Award, “Padma Bhushan” and Leverhulme Fellowship are some of the awards and accolades during his long literary career. The Library of Congress has more than one hundred and fifty publications by and on him in its collection.
- Untouchable (Modern Classics), Anand, Mulk Raj, Published by Penguin Books Ltd(1986), From: PAGETURNERS(Lampeter, CERED, United Kingdom)
- Untouchable, Anand, Mulk Raj, New Delhi: Arnold Publishers, 1981.
- Coolie. New Delhi: Penguin, 1936.
4.Two Leaves And A Bud. New Delhi: Arnold Associates (India) Pvt. Ltd. 1998.
5.The Big Heart. New Delhi: Arnold- Heinemann Publishers, 1980.
- Apology For Heroism, Mulk Raj Anand, Bombay: A.P.H.,1975.
- Critical Response To Indian English Fiction, Asani, Shyam M. Delhi, Mittal Publications, 1985.
- Politics of a Revolutionary Elite: A Study of Mulk Raj Anand’s Novels, Bald,S.R, Delhi: Modern Asian Study, 1974.