THE IMPORTANCE OF HYPOTHESIS IN RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND HIGHER EDUCATION
Sanskruti Darpan, ISSN-2278-814X,
Issue 26, September 2014, Page No. 14-21,
ABSTRACT:- (Download Abstract in PDF)
The research process begins and ends with the hypothesis. It is core to the entire procedure and, therefore, is of the utmost importance. Hypothesis is nothing but the heat of the research. In the research without hypothesis research cannot be service properly.
Hence, hypothesis is very essential part of the research. Hypothesis is nothing but the good way by which researcher finds his destination. A hypothesis can be formulated in several ways yet it always performs the basic function of predicting the final outcome of the investigation. The hypothesis usually occurs after inductive reasoning, in which the researcher performs a series of observations in order to form a theory. No doubt, sometime hypothesis may be a negative and some time it may be appositive. Means hypothesis is merely a hunch of the mind it may be true or it may be false. A hypothesis ensures the entire research process remains scientific and reliable. Though hypotheses are essential during the research process, it can produce complications with regards to probability, significance and errors. A hypothesis is an educational guess/predication based on observations. On this account researcher is in present paper mainly high kite the significance of the hypothesis and its importance in research methodology.
KEY-WORDS: Meaning of hypothesis, Types of hypothesis, research methodology and any important points.
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Hypothesis is a hunch the researcher or research team has. Basically a hypothesis is nothing more or less than a hunch to solve your research problem. Researchers tend to prefer a hypothesis that turns out correct, partly because of the human preference for winning instead of losing, but also partly because of the philosophy behind the scientific method. Researchers tend to stick to previous results that have not been falsified. It is however of much greater importance to ensure that hypothesis is manageable and being able to be tested by any kind of study. A good hypothesis adds to existing theory by proposing rules, laws, and processes and allows predictions to new situations. A good hypothesis by adding predictions on the how or why. So use sentences that include variations. If one cannot assess the predictions by observation or by experience, the hypothesis classes as not yet useful, and must wait for others who might come afterward to make possible the needed observations. For example, a new technology or theory might make the necessary experiments feasible.
Objectives: There are important following objectives of hypothesis.
- To define meaning and importance of hypothesis.
- To explain the significance of hypothesis in research methodology.
- To discuss the characteristics of good hypothesis
- To highlight the sources of hypothesis.
researcher had adopted doctrinal method and collected second hand data from various books and journals.
Meaning and Importance of Hypothesis:
“Hypo” means less than or under, and “thesis” mean s idea or general opinion to be defended by a person and thus hypothesis means an idea form beforehand which has less value than the generally formed view. If we have to proceed towards some destination for which we don’t know the way, we try to form an idea about the direction to proceed and by trial and error, we reach that goal. The primary idea is called a hypothesis.
Definition and Nature of Hypothesis: –
According to George A. Lundburg, “A hypothesis is tentative generalization, the validity of which remains to be tested. In this most elementary stage the hypothesis may be any hunch, guess, imaginative idea, which becomes the basis for action and investigation” A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables. It is a tentative answer to the research question or an educated guess of the research outcome. Hypothesis is always in a declarative sentence form and they relate either generally or specifically from variable to variable. The testable proposition is called Hypothesis. It is a proposition, condition or principle which assured perhaps, without a belief in order to draw out its logical consequences. By this method, we can test its agreement with facts which are known and may be determined.
- A proposition stating in a testable form the relationship between two or more variables,
- A conjectural statement of the relationship between two or more variables.
On this account one can say that, hypothesis is a tentative statement which expresses the nature of relationship between two or more variables usually in the forms of cause-effect relationship. Hypothesis constitutes part of the researcher‘s attempt at explaining casual relationships. It is thus an indispensable tool of the research process which enables one to restrict and streamline one‘s search for the ultimate solution to the research problem under investigation.
Characteristics of Good Hypothesis: Specific ― the hypothesis should not be too vague or general. Conceptually clear: The hypothesis should be properly expressed. It leads to discovery of additions to knowledge by helping to confirm or disconfirm particular theories or propositions.
Related to be available technique:- The hypothesis should be capable of being verified. It must be simple and capable to empirical test. It provides the framework for drawing the conclusion of a research endeavor. In fact, conclusions are direct response to the hypothesis formulated for the study as confirmed or discontinued by data analysis.
Criteria and Sources for Good Hypothesis Statement: There are some criteria for good hypothesis statement. They must be formed as- relationship and stated in such manner that their implications and relationship to the problem can be shown logically.
- They should be stated as simply as possible both in terms of theoretical complexities and implication and in terms of number of variable.
- They must be capable of verification or rejection within the limits of the research resources.
- They must be stated in a manner which provides direction for the research.
It may be outcome from a body of theory that by process of logical deduction and it leads to the prediction that if certain conditions are present, certain results will follow. However, the basis for correct formulation of hypothesis is the knowledge of the researcher, the knowledge being funded primarily in theory. The broader the experience of the researcher in relating theory to applied problem, the more efficient he will be in formulating appropriate hypothesis
Types of Hypothesis: Hypotheses are mostly commonly classified according to the way they are stated in the research process. Based on this method of classification, there are two types of hypothesis:
1.Null hypothesis:- The null hypothesis may be crude or refined. When a null hypothesis is stated negatively, it is called a null hypothesis. A crude null hypothesis which is at the low level of abstraction and it does not lead to higher theoretical research. The null hypothesis is a proposition that stipulates that there would be no relationship or difference between the variables being studied and that any such relationship or difference if found to exist does so accidentally or as a result of chance it is more or less the negation of the directional or alternative hypothesis. A/c to Young, three broad categories is there,
2.Uniform:- Uniform Hypothesis relate to the existence of empirical uniformities.
- Complex:- The complex types are concerned with complex idea type. They existence of logically desired relationship between empirical uniformities.
- Analytic:- They are aimed at finding out the relationship between changes in one property leading to change in another. And so many types are there which are relating to hypothesis i.e. Uni-variablbe and multi-variable, universal and statistical, temporal and cross sectional, descriptive, relational, explanatory etc. The problem and hypothesis direct investigation helps to deduce specific empirical manifestation implied by them. It advances scientific knowledge by helping the investigator to confirm or reject theory and hypothesis incorporates the theory or part of it, in testable or near testable form.
Hypothesis Testing and Levels of Significance:-
In qualitative studies, the main purpose of the analysis is to test hypothesis, which form the basis of the study and to discuss these in relation to theories in the field. Hypothesis testing is often referred to as significance testing. A test of significance is conducted by comparing the values of a statistics computed from a sample with values predicted by the sampling distribution under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.
Types of Errors:
There are few errors in the nature of problems and hypothesis
- Scientific problem is not moral and ethical questions.
- Value statements that indicate cultural or personal judgments or preferences should be avoided.
- Another common defect of problem statements often occurs in doctoral thesis: listing the methodological points or problems as sub problems.
Hypotheses, Concepts and Measurement:
Concepts, as abstract units of meaning, play a key role in the development and testing of hypotheses. Concepts are the basic components of hypotheses. Most formal hypotheses connect concepts by specifying the expected relationships between concepts. The concepts should be measured. Education could be measured by “years of school completed” or “highest degree completed” etc. Income could be measured by “hourly rate of pay” or “yearly salary” etc.
When a set of hypotheses are grouped together they become a type of conceptual framework. When a conceptual framework is complex and incorporates causality or explanation it is generally referred to as a theory.
According to noted philosopher of science Carl Gustav Hempel “An adequate empirical interpretation turns a theoretical system into a testable theory: The hypotheses whose constituent terms have been interpreted become capable of test by reference to observable phenomena. Frequently the interpreted hypothesis will be derivative hypotheses of the theory; but their confirmation or disconfirmation by empirical data will then immediately strengthen or weaken also the primitive hypotheses from which they were derived.’’
Hypothesis and Variables:
A variable is something that changes. It changes according to different factors. Some variables change easily, like the stock-exchange value, while other variables are almost constant, like the name of someone. Researchers are often seeking to measure variables. The variable can be a number, a name, or anything where the value can change. An example of a variable is temperature. The temperature varies according to other variable and factors. You can measure different temperature inside and outside. If it is a sunny day, chances are that the temperature will be higher than if it’s cloudy. Another thing that can make the temperature change is whether something has been done to manipulate the temperature, like lighting a fire in the chimney.
In research, you typically define variables according to what you’re measuring. The independent variable is the variable which the researcher would like to measure (the cause), while the dependent variable is the effect (or assumed effect), dependent on the independent variable. These variables are often stated in experimental research, in a hypothesis, e.g. “what is the effect of personality on helping behavior?”
On this account researcher conclude that, hypothesis is very important in research work. It is key to help to the researcher to open his innovative idea. In framing a hypothesis, the investigator must not currently know the outcome of a test or that it remains reasonably under continuing investigation.
Only in such cases does the experiment, test or study potentially increase the probability of showing the truth of a hypothesis.
If the researcher already knows the outcome, it counts as a “consequence” and the researcher should have already considered this while formulating the hypothesis. In 21st century it is very essential that, a hypothesis should be an evolutionary one and there is some specific outcome. For proper evaluation, the framer of a hypothesis needs to define specifics in operational terms. A hypothesis requires more work by the researcher in order to either confirm or disprove it. In due course, a confirmed hypothesis may become part of a theory or occasionally may grow to become a theory itself.
- Myneni S.R. (Dr.) “Legal Research and Methodology” Allahabad Law agency.
- Hypothesized by Sadi Carnot, truth demonstrated by James Prescott Joule, proven by Emmy Noether .
- MLA HANDBOOK for writers of Research Papers (Seventh Edition), Affiliated East-West Press Pvt Ltd.
- Research Methodology: Methods and Techniquesby C. R. Kothari, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110 002, INDIA